Abu Simbel temple was built by king Ramesses II in 19th Dynasty and it located in southwestern of Aswan around 290 Km . it is the only temple carved in the rock , and i was reclaimed in the the sand , in 1813 came the archaeologist ” Ludwig Bodchardt ” and discovered the temple and in 1816 the archaeologist ‘Belzoni ” came and completed the discovery of the temple . Abu simble it was not the name for origin in the ancient Egyptian language , but the real name for the temple is ” Pr-Ra-Messes” meaning the house of Ramesses The lover of Amun. but the reason for naming this name was that during the discovery of the temple there was a shepherd called Abu Simbel .
The Reasons to built this Temple …..
1-Political reason to make this area between the Upper Nubia “Kush” and the lower Nubia “Wadwat”.
2-Religious reason to make the king god there , far of Amun’s priests and make his religion from the north to the south .
The Gods for The Temple ……….
This temple was built for worshiping these gods “Ra-Hor-Akhty” , “Amun-Ra”, “Ptah” and “Ramesses II”.
The Problem Of Abu Simbel Temple In The Past …….
The problem began in 1914 during the first treatment of Aswan dam ,and the problem increased in 1936 during the second treatment of the dam, the problem became bigger during the construction of the high dam , where the temple sank under the water of the River Nile about 40 meters .
The Solve for the Problem ……..
Some archaeologists made some suggestions for this problem……
1-To Photographed the temple and make show for the people by screen but this plan not succeed .
2-To make the tourists visit the temple by submarines but this plan not succeed also because the air pressure of the submarines will effect on the temple .
3-To dig in the rock around the temple and set up a concrete layer between the floor of the temple and under it to make it a one mass , and for those the plan did not succeed because there is possibility to destroying the temple .
4-The temple is cut into pieces and rock blocks , and transported to another place , and installed by solid tools , and used in hand saws to cut , to not loss a parts of the temple ,this plan was successful and the temple was cut to 750 thousand pieces of rock, and this process was carried out between 1964 to 1970 .
The description of The Temple …….
The facade of the temple is topped by four large statues of king Ramesses II , in the sitting position with his hand on his knees , meaning “the merciful king”
looking to the four statues for the king , you will see some small statues beside the feet of the king its for his wives , his daughters and his sons , and in the front of this there is also the statue for the king was destroyed in th 34 year of the king’s reign .
and on the left side of the temple there is chapel for the god ” Thuht” , and on the right side of the temple another chapel for the god “Ra-Hor-Akhty”.
And on the left side also we see the marriage plate , there the king of Hittites and his daughter in front of the king Ramesses II .
And in the top of the entrance we find god “Ra” hold in his hands the two symbols of ” User , Maat ” that meaning the king make himself a God , and another scene on the left and the right sides the king offering the Maat to his name , and on the facade there Baboon monkeys that mean for the greatest sunrise , and on the base of the statue on the right side there is scene for “Siem Tawy” we find the king hold the the two lungs that is mean Upper and lower Egypt breathing through the King.
The First Hall…..
Inside the temple we find a hall contains 8 square columns and based on it statues of the king Ramesses II in Osiraic position , and between the third and the fourth statues there is a plate for Ptah’s praying .
The ceiling of the hall is decorated with the protective mothers ,which represent ” Nakhbt and Wagite ” and they doing protective to the temple .
In the left side on the short wall we find the king Ramesses II disciplined the Nubian and behind him there his wife Queen “Nefertari”.
On the long wall we find the king Ramesses II disciplined the Asian and Libyan .
On the right side on the short wall on the top we find God “Ra-Hor-Akhty” and give to the king swastika , and on the bottom we find the daughters of the king a head of them ” Bent-Enat” .
On the long wall we find Kadaesh battle arrangement , and scene for the king and in front of him the leaders of the army consults him in the war’s plans , and behind the king there is his guards and people hold in their hands the fans , for a long way of this wall we find scenes for military training and tame the horses and the battle.
The Second Hall ….
To the right side we find scene for the sacred boat with a head of ram , and on the left side we find scene for the sacred boat with a head for King Ramesses II .
The Holy Of Holies ……..
There are four statues inside the Holy of Holies from the right to the left “Ra-Hor-Akhty” , ” Ramesses II” , “Amun” and “Ptah” .
And there is amazing thing happen two times in the year , that the sun perpendicular on the face of Ramesses II in the Holy of the Holies inside the temple on “22nd February “and “22nd October” , and these two dates representing ” his Birthday” and “His Crowned as king of Egypt ” .