Nefertari the illustrious Pharaonic name so often mentioned is in fact a very appropriate name indeed , for Nefertari signifies in Pharaonic “Beauty of all Beauties” . She is wife of legendary Pharaoh ” Ramesses II” in 19th Dynasty of the modern era , she had the honor to have a temple erected in her name at Abu-Simbel. Ramesses II was renowned for his prolific architecture of numerous religious constructions and great buildings widely spread on the Egyptian territory , such as the temples of Karnak , Luxor and Abydos , and such as the superb tomb of his cherished wife in the valley of the Queens in Luxor .
This tomb discovered by Italian archeologist in 1904 “Ernesto Sicciarelli ” . Was neglected untill 1986 . With the active efforts of the authorities between 1986 and 1992 the tomb was restored and reopened to the public in November 1995 .
The beauty of this tomb is altogether different from that of the illustrious Tut-Ankh-Amun so renowned for its gold and silver treasures . The beauty of the tomb of Nefertari resides particularly in its colored murals . In fact the mural scenes are of such striking beauty and vivid colors of smashing realism that they are still considered today one of the most beautiful murals ever known in the history of mankind .
Explain the scenes of the Tomb…….
Nefertari dressed in the white transparent dress of the paradise of the God Osiris .
Nefertari in adoration standing at the entrance of the temple with the bird ” Alba” in The rear .
Nefertari playing a game of checkers in her tent . This is a game notoriously related to evil and witchcraft . Here it is one of the talismans mentioned in the book of the Dead .
Guards of human and animal figures at the gates . The first one has a head of a hyena “Khanoum” , the second has a head of a lioness”Sekhnet” , and the third one has a human figure . Each one has a dagger to bar evil spirits from accessing the tomb . It is the talisman number 144 of book of the Dead.
The god Ra with the head of a hyena and the body of the god Osiris like a mummy , in between the gods ” Isis and Nephtys ” to symbolize the embodiment of god ” Ra ” into Osiris and vice-versa .
The seven ” Hathors ” and the bull symbolizing god “Horus ” with the figure of the ” Ka ” fertilizing the sacred milk for the Queen .
Anubis is sitting on the mummification tent holding between his feet the threader and around his neck the linen bands used in the mummification process.
The sons of ” HORUS” shaped like a mummy with the god ” Horus ” in person on the backstage and Queen ” Nefertari” behind him .
Isis sitting on the sign of the ‘Nebu’ meaning gold and before her the sign of “Shenou” between her hands , symbolizing the Eternal Oratory .
Nefertari holding the symbol of stability in her right hand and offering her sacrifices of meat and fruit to the gods to demonstrate the intimate union between the souls of the gods and the spirit of sacrifice .
Nefertari offering two recipients containing her sacrifices to Gods “Sehour” , “Seket” and “Maat”.
Osiris God of the nether world and judge of the Divine Court , Shaped like a mummy and dressed in a white robe holding in his hand the fly hunter and surrounded front and back by the sign of the god ” Anubis” sitting on his throne .
Isis carrying in her hand the pledge of the nether world and offering it to Queen Nefertari .
The grand-priest ” Harnagit-Eff”regarded as the highest religious authority of the time and probably the elder brother of the deceased king .
Maat symbol of the providence and justice , standing by the gate entrance leading to the chamber contiguous to the tomb , wishing welcome to Queen Nefertari.
Isis presenting Queen Nefertari to god ” Ra-Hor-Akhty” god of Constancy and Renovation in the nether world . Nefertari divine spouse and heiress of the righteous way in the paradise of Osiris .
Anubis with Queen Nefertari in front of him in a stance of submission granting her health , long life and constancy in the nether world . On the bust of Nefertari one can notice the medallion of the ” Awsakh” a large pendant meaning the return to eternal life .
Maat carrying on her head an ostrich feather symbol of justice . she’s throwing her arms arounf Queen Nefertari as a symbol of protection .
The Ankh symbol of life in the nether world offered by Goddess Isis to Nefertari .
The bird ” Alba ” with the body of a bird and the head of Queen Nefertari whose task is to take the soul of the deceased and carry it to heaven . It is believed that this bird worked with god Ra rising and setting with the cycle of the sun symbol of god Ra .
Goddess ” Select” sitting with the Ankh in her right hand symbol of life and in the left hand the Wasset symbol of force . She is one of the goddesses of the nether world sent to protect Nefertari
Nefertari in humility in front of Goddess “Hathor” Goddess of the Occident and Queen of the Skies in her role as protector carrying in her left hand the sign of God ” Horus” symbol of protection .
Nefertari Beauty of Beauties , pompously dressed in white robe ceremonious bracelets in prostration in front of the Gods .
” Select” shaped like a woman wearing a scorpion on her head symbol of protection of the deceased .
Hathor Goddess of the Occident , music ,beauty am of love .
The ceiling of the tomb . Notice the dark colors and the white shining and scintillating stars .
Goddess ” Waggit” carrying the double crown on top of the sign ” Nab” , Guarding the gate leading to the mortuary chamber .
The serpent ” Mehen” spreading its wings to protect the Cartouche of Queen Nefertari and her mortuary slab , indicating victory of the Queen over evil.
Queen Nefertari spread like a mummy on the mummification couch and crowned with the mask of goddess ” Osiris ” . In front and behind her , one can see the protective Goddesses of the dead . Isis and Nephtys and the god Horus shaped like a bird . In the back stage behind Nephtys one can see the bird “EL-Beno” which is nothing but the soul of the god of the sun Ra .
“Tahout” God of wisdom and knowledge , with the head of a bird an body of faucet . His right hand holds the ” Waset” and the left hand holds the “Ankh” . In front of him Goddess ” Hakkat ” holds a rolled papyrus carrying the name of Nefertari standing in front of her to have her name added in the Registry of the ” Ayaro” the paradise of Osiris .
The god Ptah whose role is to enrobe the deceased mummified with linen bands , holding the sign of the “Ged” signifying constancy the “Ankh” signifying life and the ” Wassat” signifying .
Two talismans from the book of the dead ; the first is an animal and the second that of a human being one of guards of Osiris holding a dagger to bar access to evil spirits violating the deceased .
Two guards one of human form and the other looking like a hippopota mus holding a dagger to protect the Queen from the evil spirits and help her reach the paradise of ” Osiris”.
The trio guarding the western Cemetery of God ” Osiris” ; God ” Osiris ” lord of the cemetery and it change of the dead . God ” Hathor” God of the Occident and one of the gods of love and Beauty . god Anubis God of mummification and Guardian of the Cemetery .
Goddess ” Nekhbet ” symbol of the protection of the tomb.
Ra-Hor-Akhty , God of the orient and of the Occident , who is none but the union of Gods ” Horus” , and ” Ra ” and considered one of the Eternal Gods . Behind him is Goddess ” Hathor” protector of the western Cemetery .
On the steps of the tomb leading to the mortuary chamber , one can see ” Horus” the father and his children “Ahti” , “Habi” ,”Deframaout” “Ef” and “Kabh-Senouaf” .
Anubis with the body of a man and a head shaped like a dog holding with the right hand the sign of the “Ankh” and with the left hand the “Wassat” .He is the God of mummification and Guardian of the cemetery .
Nefertari in the shape of God Osiris like a mummy carrying on her head a female bird “Nekhbet” protective Goddess of upper Egypt .
Nefertari semi-inclined in adoration in front of the guards of the gates to obtain the permission to cross them on her way to paradise , to reach the paradise of God Osiris , she will have to tell the legendary name of each gate and that of each guard standing .