Abydos temple located in El-balyana city south of Sohag Governorate ” Abydos” , Abydos was the first capital of Egypt in pre-Dynasties era till the 4th Dynasty , The history of the city back to 5000 years , and Abydos was the main center for worshiping God Osisris , and the ancient Egyptian were going to Abydos to making pilgrimages there .
The History of The Temple ….
Abydos temple built by king Seti I , and completed the temple his son king Ramesses II and after Ramesses II completed the temple his son king Merenptah in 19th Dynasty .
The Description of the Temple ….
It is amazing when you are inside the temple takes you to the past , and see the greatness of the place , and stay contemplates this greatness of the spirituality in this place .
The temple was connected with the Nile through a canal to bring the building materials like sand stones and granite stones , and it was a bark station in front of the 1st pylon , and also used for the sacred trip .
1st Pylon ……………
It was built by the king Seti I , built from lime stone , and completed by king Ramesses II , only the entrance built from the red sand stone built by king Mernptah .
The 1st Open Courtyard …..
From the left and the right sides there is two wells used for the purity because the temple haven’t sacred lake . And in this courtyard there is scenes for Kadesh battle and the king Ramesses II depicted in his chariot which leaded by two horses .
The 2nd Courtyard ……
In the interface of this courtyard there is 12 square columns and 7 Axes , the main axe for the God Amun because he is the lord of all Gods , and all the scenes on the columns represent the King Ramesses II with with the different Gods and Goddesses .
Some changes in the temple that Ramesses II added it, he closed 4 of the doors for ” Isis Axe , Ptah Axe , Ra-Hor-Akhty Axe and Seti Axe “which leading to the hypostyle .
1st Hypostyle Hall …..
It contains on 24 columns on two sides every side contain 12 columns. Seti I built it and we are sure that decorated by king Ramesses II because the temple built from lime stones that built by king Seti I and the closing doors built from sand stones .
The Scenes In This Hall …….
On the right side…. on the upper part we see scenes represent the relationship between the king and different Gods and Goddesses . And on the lower part we see scene for the God Hapi , while he kneels and carrying the offerings and upon his head the sign of the territory and this territory is belongs to upper Egypt .
On the left side…. on the upper part there scene represent the purity for the King Ramesses II between the god Horus and Thuot . And also there scene for the King Ramesses II offering the offerings to Amun and Mut , and another scene for the king offering the offering to ” Osiris , Isis and Horus “. And on the lower part we see the God Hapi while he kneels and carrying the offerings and Upon on his head the sign of the territory and this territory is belongs to upper Egypt.
The 2nd Hypostyle Hall ….
It built by king Seti I , it contains 36 columns arranged in 2 levels , the first level contain 24 columns and the 2nd level contains 12 columns .
The scenes on the wall of this hall ….
There is scene for King Seti I kneels for goddess “Emintet” , “Isis ” . And another scene for the king Seti I kneels to goddess Maat and offer to her the statue for Maat , and in the end of the wall we see the trait of Abydos “Osiris , Isis and Horus ” .
The Holy of Holies ……
The Holy of Holies in Abydos Temple contains 7 chapels for the and every chapel we see the king make the daily rituals for the gods and goddesses .
The 1st chapel for the God “Horus” .
The 2nd chapel for the Goddess “Isis”.
The 3rd chapel for God “Osiris ” .
The 4th chapel for God “Amun-Ra” .
The 5th chapel for God “Ptah “.t
The 6th chapel for God “Ra-Hor-Akhty” .
The 7th chapel for King “Seti I “
The temple built for God Osiris but King Seti I make it for 7 Gods with 7 chapels , and we can see the “Jed” columns which symbol of God Osiris and symbol of restoration , and also there is chapel for God “Sukar” and in it the restoration of Osirs .
The Ox corridor , its called with this name because the Ox depicted in it and it’s built by king Ramesses II .
On the right side we will see Ramesses II while is holding a big rope to try to pull the Ox its meaning that the king is strong enough to reign another 30 years , and we see the prince “Amun-Kher-Shef” with his father and help him .
To the left side , we see a big net full of birds , fishes , animals and that mean the enemies have nothing against the king and he is strong enough to hunt them as he can hunt the birds . And also we see another scenes offering the 4 cows , and scene foe God “Sukar”boat .